Stereolithography

(SLA or SL; also known as stereolithography apparatusoptical fabricationphoto-solidification, or resin printing) is a form of 3D printing technology used for creating modelsprototypespatterns, and production parts in a layer by layer fashion using photopolymerization, a process by which light causes chains of molecules to link, forming polymers. Those polymers then make up the body of a three-dimensional solid. Research in the area had been conducted during the 1970s, but the term was coined by Chuck Hull in 1984 when he applied for a patent on the process, which was granted in 1986. Stereolithography can be used to create things such as prototypes for products in development, medical models, and computer hardware, as well as in many other applications. While stereolithography is fast and can produce almost any design, it can be expensive.

Medical Modeling

Stereolithographic models have been used in medicine since the 1990s, for creating accurate 3D models of various anatomical regions of a patient, based on datafrom computer scans. Medical modelling involves first acquiring a CTMRI, or other scan. This data consists of a series of cross sectional images of the human anatomy. In these images different tissues show up as different levels of grey. Selecting a range of grey values enables specific tissues to be isolated. A region of interest is then selected and all the pixels connected to the target point within that grey value range are selected. This enables a specific organ to be selected. This process is referred to as segmentation. The segmented data may then be translated into a format suitable for stereolithography. While stereolithography is normally accurate, the accuracy of a medical model depends on many factors, especially the operator performing the segmentation correctly. There are potential errors possible when making medical models using stereolithography but these can be avoided with practice and well trained operators.

Stereolithographic models are used as an aid to diagnosis, preoperative planning and implant design and manufacture. This might involve planning and rehearsing osteotomies, for example. Surgeons use models to help plan surgeries but prosthetists and technologists also use models as an aid to the design and manufacture of custom-fitting implants. For instance, medical models created through stereolithography can be used to help in the construction of Cranioplasty plates.

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